Dehydration and malnutrition have become so commonplace in nursing homes that many have called them "the silent killers." According to a study by The Commonwealth Fund, 35 to 85% of nursing home residents suffer from malnutrition, and between 30 and 50% are underweight. Another study published by the Journal of the American Geriatric Society found that an alarming 39 out of 40 residents studied did not receive adequate fluids for every day that the study was conducted. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimated that as many as 208,000 patients over the age of 65 were released from short-term hospital stays with a primary diagnosis of dehydration.
Despite Federal and state laws requiring that nursing homes provide for their residents' nutritional needs, malnutrition and dehydration continue to plague the nursing home system. Under the Nursing Home Reform Act of 1987, 42 CFR § 483.25, nursing homes are required to ensure that a nursing home resident "maintains acceptable parameters of nutritional status," measured by weight and protein levels. They are also required to provide a resident with a therapeutic diet if nutrition becomes an issue. Additionally, if a resident is unable to care for him or herself, the nursing home is required to provide all of the services necessary to ensure proper nutrition.
There are many causes for dehydration and malnutrition in nursing homes. Many nursing home residents often cannot take care of themselves and in some cases need help eating and drinking. According to the Commonwealth Fund study, 40 to 60% of residents suffer from dysphagia, or swallowing disorders. Dysphagia may occur as a result of Parkinson's disease, strokes, dementia, or other neurological disorders. Additionally, 60 to 70% of nursing home residents suffer from some form of cognitive impairment, which in many cases involves patients who require assistance eating.
There are several other reasons why a nursing home resident may become dehydrated or malnourished. In certain cases, depression and cognitive impairment may lead to weight loss. In others, dental health problems that are not properly managed may make the patient unable to eat or limit their diet. In yet other cases, cultural or ethnic preferences may not be available in the nursing home's restricted menu. Some medications, including anti-depressants and high blood pressure medicine act as diuretics; other medications may make a patient sweat more.
There are several dangers involved with malnutrition and dehydration, especially among the elderly. Besides aggravating many existing ailments, malnutrition and dehydration can lead to tooth decay, high blood pressure, and even death. Dehydration can also cause kidney failure, coma, and electrolyte abnormalities.
Under the Nursing Home Reform Act, failure to detect and treat malnutrition and dehydration is a form of neglect. Several studies have suggested that incidences of malnutrition and dehydration can almost always be attributed to understaffing and poor supervision. Solutions as simple as having an adequate number of staff that are properly trained to supervise resident's food and fluid intake and routinely offering a resident fluids or food could avoid a large number of these situations and save lives.
While it is good news that these conditions are almost always preventable, it is also alarming to know that all of the injuries and even deaths that resulted from these conditions should not have happened had the nursing home not been negligent. If your loved one has suffered similar injuries as a result of the neglect of his or her nursing home, it is important address the issue immediately with the staff. If this does not fix the problem or severe injuries have already been suffered, then you should consult with an experienced personal injury attorney to determine whether or not there might be a nursing home negligence or abuse claim.